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Bio concentration of Heavy Metals in Cabbage and Tomato Growing near Copper Polluting Facilities on the Copperbelt Province, Zambia

Jean Moussa Kourouma

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the degree of pollution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals; Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni and Pb from the soils of the Copperbelt Province to the edible parts of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capita l.) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) using the Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF), Contamination Load Index (CLI) and Nemerow Integrated Pollution Index (NIPI). Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils, cabbage and tomato leaves and fruits from industrial and non-industrial areas in Kitwe, Mufulira and Chingola districts of Copperbelt Province, Zambia were determined after acid digestion by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Very high metal transference from soil to cabbage and tomatoes observed, it is a concern for public health particularly for urban population which consumes the roots, stems, stalks, leaves or fruits of these vegetables. The result showed that BAF in both species were below 1 except for cabbage which accumulate Cd to the critical limit of BAF=1 in areas close to the mine polluting facility. The CLI was above 1 for the studied metals in soil samples collected near the mine polluting facility while in the control site, only Cd, Ni in cabbage and Cd, Pb in tomato were found above the threshold value of 1. The NIPI indicated an extreme soil contamination by all the studied elements in samples collected around the mining generated wastelands. In the control sites only, Cu and Cd exceeded NIPI ≥ 3, indicating that even in the control sites, soils and crops are seriously contaminated by Cu and Cd, slightly contaminated by Zn and Pb and at alert level for Ni. This high level of contamination shows that sufficient attention should be given to the soils of the Copperbelt and to the crops grown in those areas. Consuming such crops may pose increased health risks to the local population.

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Feed Resource Availability, Livestock Migration Pattern and Synthesis of Feeding Calendar at Wag-Lasta, Ethiopia

Bekahgn Wondim

This survey was conducted from 2015 to 2017 to explore the pattern and reason of seasonal livestock migration, situation of different feed resources availability and seasonality at different agro ecologies of Wag–Lasta area in Amhara regional state of northern Ethiopia. A single visit formal survey, group discussion and individual interview were used during data collection. Grazing, crop residues and purchased feeds were the major feed resources with respective contribution of 56%, 22%, and 11% in the mid and lowlands of waghemira whereas 37%, 45% and 5% respectively in the highlands. Sorghum Stover followed by Tef straw were the major crop residues used at the mid and lowlands of Waghemira while barley straw followed by wheat straw and broad bean residue in the highlands of Wag-Lasta. Farmers used the residue effectively from January up to June when other alternative feed resources are not available in all agro ecologies. In the mid and lowland districts, average livestock holding were 5.62 TLU. Correspondingly, the average annual feed production from all feed sources was 6.1 tones. Based on the assumption of daily feed requirement of Farm animals, the total annual feed demand at house hold level were calculated as 12.9 tones. Thus, each house hold was under feed gap of 6.78 tons annually. In the highlands of Wag-Lasta, average livestock holding was 3.85TLU with annual feed demand of 8.7 ton and the available annual feed production was 4.5 tone thus, an average of 4.2 tone was in scarce annually.75% of the respondent at the mid and lowland districts of Waghemira were possess seasonal livestock migration while 25% were stable at their settlement area year round. The reason for migration was 95.6% for feed and 4.4% for both feed and water. 44.4%, 53% and 2.3% of the migrants were spend at the migration area for about five months, six up to ten months and for about four years respectively. Belessa, Tirari, Telajje, Tigray boarder, Dahna and Beyeda with respective migrant’s percentage of 22,44,20,7,5 and 2 were identified as destinations. The distance covered during the migration were 37.8% (20-35km), 28.9% (36-60km), 24.4% (61-80km) and 8.9% (>80km).

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Reading and Writing the World with Statistics: Critical Understanding for Social Justice

Mulugeta Woldemicheal Gebresenbet

This study addresses the need to develop secondary students’ critical understanding of descriptive statistics for social justice. Students worked on non-routine problems called Model Eliciting Activities, which require students to make interpretation and conclusion of meaningful real life situations. The modeling lessons had four Model Eliciting Activities (Safe Water, Millennium Dam, Football & Tourist) so as to allow students to ‘express, test and revise’ their models iteratively in an engineering way in multi-disciplinary areas. The objective of the study is to explore how can students develop critical understanding with the aim of living together in the world that is ‘survival with dignity’ using a pedagogy of Modeling Approach on cross cutting issues of a society on a unit of descriptive statistics. Quality Assurance Guide instrument was used to assess students’ models on Model Eliciting Activities. A transformative study design was used to look into students’ critical understanding qualitatively. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze the data on students’ reports on Model Eliciting Activities and on projects. Though students found Model Eliciting Activities cognitively challenging tasks, they constructed different models working in a team collaboratively towards social justice. In conclusion, the findings of the study showed students more likely can enhance their critical understanding of descriptive statistics towards social justice working on relevant non-routine tasks like Model Eliciting Activities and doing projects on their own themes.

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A Critical Appraisal of Amaranths and Chenopodium Weeds for Their Harmful and Beneficial Aspects in Context to Food Security in Pastoral Area

Mohammed Gufran Khan
Amaranths and Chenopodium species are among the worst weeds in the world. They are annuals competing with many economic crops including cereals and vegetables in different parts of the world including Ethiopia and cause great yield losses. Lack of knowledge about these pseudo-cereal weeds has created an atmosphere of uncertainty among the farmers particularly in pastoral area like Afar. On the other hand, food insecurity is a reality for hundreds of millions of people around the world. As a consequence of globalization and industrialization of agriculture, global food security has become increasingly dependent on only a handful of fertilization and high energy demanding plant species. These two crops, rich in high quality protein content with various essential vitamins and minerals may be an ideal alternative. In Ethiopia, food insecurity is highly prevalent in moisture deficit highland and in the lowland pastoral areas. Even in years of adequate rainfall and good harvest, the people, particularly in lowland agro-pastoral areas, remain food insecure and in need of food assistance. The mentioned facts stimulate the retrieving of alternative crops into the production. Thus, the present paper is a more comprehensive appraisal of these weeds that attempts to provide information on eco-physiology and economic significance of Amaranths and Chenopdium into a new perspective with a special focus on beneficial and harmful impacts on livestock and human. Read More

The Role of Information and Communication Technology for Gender Equality: The Case of Assosa Zone, Ethiopia

Shambel Ferede Assemahagn

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allows augmented flow of information, knowledge, and exposure to the customs, norms and practices of cultures and societies. The main objective of this research is to investigate the role of ICT for gender equality. To attain the objectives of the research study designed through qualitative and quantitative research methods. The findings of the study revealed that more number of the respondents has no awareness about ICT tools. Reasons included for this ignorance are poor electricity supply, limited network coverage, lack of skill/knowledge, shortage of money to buy ICT tools and others.

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Quality of Education with the Focus of Faculty Competencies, Research Leads Student Cognitive and Collaborative Learning Techniques in the Class Room

Mekapotula Srinivasa Chakravarthi

In this paper the faculty competencies, research leads student cognitive and collaborative learning techniques in the class room; supports to meet the current generation and future generation requirements with higher impact with the student development in educational institutions. The global idea of collaborative learning techniques in many ways interlinked with the quality of education and the community development. This will go a long way in the “designing of an optimal professional teaching mechanism” for colleges and Universities of Afar region, Ethiopia. This leads to contribute to student development while improving the knowledge as well as of the local community and society at large. The results indicate that collaborative learning is a cognitively and emotionally challenging learning process. The way in which group members share and develop their ideas depends on how actively they monitor their own and each other’s evolving understanding. However, monitoring cognitive activities as a group is only one part of effective and enjoyable learning. Methodologically, this study provides several process-oriented analysis schemas for analyzing cognitive activities within collaborative learning. Practically, this study offers teachers and educational professionals’ ideas for the design of collaborative learning environments. Further research is, however, needed to explore the collaborative learning characteristics of well- and poorly functioning groups.

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