DAAGU INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH

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WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSE AS AN IMPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH IN ARSIS AREA, AFAR, NORTHEASTERN ETHIOPIA

Hindeya Gebru

Safe water is a prerequisite for human health and any developmental activities. Water-related diseases are caused by insufficient safe water quality and quantity. The study area is located in the east-central Afar depression which affected mainly by salinity and fluoride. The main objective is to investigate the water quality of the area as an implication for human health. The exposed lithologies of the area are consist of basalt, scoriaceous basalt, and alluvial deposits. These are affected by normal faults with NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE orientation. A total of three water samples are collected from spring, borehole, and river water points and analyzed for about 31 parameters. As a result, the spring water has very low water quality followed by borehole but the river water is freshwater and portable for domestic uses. The long-term effect of the spring water can be kidney and heart diseases, laxative and constipation effects, cardiovascular disease, kidney damage and disinfection, hypertension, headache, coronary artery disease, diabetes, adrenal insufficient, and hyperkalemia. The water types of the springs, borehole, and river are Na-Cl-SO4, Na-HCO3, and Ca-Na-HCO3-SO4, respectively. The water quality index (WQI) shows the spring water is not recommended for any domestic purpose but the river water needs treatment for the turbidity and total iron concentrations only. As the finding shows, the spring water is strongly recommended to protect from any consumers.

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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCING TAXPAYERS’ COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR CATEGORY “C” TAXPAYERS IN EASTERN ZONE OF TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA

Teshome Mengstu

The study was focused on the investigation of the factors that influencing taxpayer’s compliance behavior in Eastern Zone of Tigray in Category “C” taxpayers. In order to gain an in depth understanding of the phenomenon, the study expands the basic tax payers’ compliance variable to incorporate tax service quality, tax system/structure, attitude towards tax evasion, type of occupation, income level and financial condition. In order to achieve the desired objectives of the study, primary data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from 380 sampled respondents, which is a cross sectional type. The collected data were treated and analyzed statistically using ordered logistic regressions analysis with the help of STATA version 11. Moreover, descriptive statistics was also used for both questionnaire and interview via content analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the descriptive statistics on the surveyed sample perceived the tax service quality and tax system structure were ineffective and business profit taxpayers shown unfavorable attitude towards tax evasion based up on the interview as well. The findings also indicated that, based on ordered logistic regression, all variables found to have a positive effect on tax payers’ compliance behavior. Particularly tax service quality, occupation and financial condition significantly affect the tax payers ‘compliance behavior at 95 % confidence interval.

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STUDY ON REMOVAL OF CONGO RED DYE ONTO CLEODENDRUM FRAGRANS LEAVES: OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM)

M.Ravi Kumar

The Objective of the present study is to remove Congo red (CR) dye onto Cleodendrum fragrans leaves powder as biosorbent in a batch study. The effect of process variables used were contact time, solution pH, initial CR dye concentration, biosorbent dosage, average particle size of the biosorbent and temperature. The kinetic, isotherm and Thermodynamic studies of removal of CR dye onto Cleodendrum fragrans biosorbent were investigated. In the present study Congo red dye uptake was found to be 13.31mg/g by using Cleodendrum fragrans leaves as biosorbent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to study the correlations among the process variables affecting the process and to optimize the process to give high dye removal. The maximum removal efficiency was predicted to be 93.54% at a temperature of 303.48 K, solution pH of 3.99, initial dye concentration of 19.63 mg/L, biosorbent dosage of 1.76 g.

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A Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence and Financial Loss Attributed to Hydatidosis in Cattle Slaughtered at Bahir Dar Municipal Abattior, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Wossene Negash

Hydatidosis is a public health hazard in Ethiopia. The status of the disease in the study districts has not been elucidated. Hence, the current cross-sectional study was designed and conducted from December 2017 to April 2018 in an attempt to determine the prevalence and financial losses associated with bovine hydatidosis on cattle slaughtered at Bahir dar Municipal Abattoir and identify potential risk factors were identified. Applying simple randomly sampling method, both adult and old male cattle animals were selected prior to slaughter. Antemortem and postmortem examination methods were made during the study. During antemortem examination, relevant data including sex, origin of animals (districts), body condition, age and clinical signs were collected. Similarly, postmortem inspection was conducted to examine the existence of hydatid cysts in the organs under study (liver and lungs) for each animal following the standard meat inspection procedures. Of 384 heads of cattle slaughtered and examined, 127 were found positive for Echinococcos granulosus with an overall prevalence of 33.05%, computed by standard statistical methods. No statistically significant association detected between selected risk factors (P> 0.05) and the disease. The prevalence of hydatid cysts by organs included: 46 (11.97%), 45 (11.71%), and 36 (9.375%) for lungs, livers, and both lung and liver, respectively. The annual financial loss due to organ condemnation and live carcass weight loss associated to bovine hydatidosis at the study abattoir was estimated to be 10,531,776.12 ETB/385,496.93USD. The current study has revealed a higher prevalence of bovine hydatidosis in the study districts urging prompted and collaborative actions to be set in place.

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Participation of Local People in Community Based Ecotourism (CBET) Development Project in Ethiopia, a Case of Eastern Zone of Tigray

Haftu K/mariam

Ethiopia, especially Tigray region is the origin of plenty of tourism resources like Rock Hewon churches, Axum obelisk, endemic animals and different cultural heritages, then the sector is growing fast even the tourism policy highlights for active participation of local people in tourism. Yet, CBET project is the best formal mechanism for community participation from the tourism sector. Hence the objective of this study was to assess the participation of local people in CBET development in Ethiopia, in case of eastern zone of Tigray region. Cross sectional design was applied to conduct a study at the point of time and descriptive method was used to describe the nature of the problem. Total of 163 samples was participated from the target population using judgmental from non-members of CBET communities and convenient from members of CBET and tour guides. The finding showed that, there is low participation of communities especially females in the sector, High illiteracy, less knowledge of communities in the sector than the tour guides and members of CBET. Only few peoples were engaged in the CBET project. Generally the community�s involvement in the sector was found low. Then the recommendation is that, communities especially female participation in the sector should be encouraged, income from the sector should be expanded by training local community in different income generating activities. Generally Assuring integration of the national, regional, local and public-private efforts towards ecotourism development is a best action to develop the sector.

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PREVALENCE OF BOVINE SCHISTOSOMIASIS AND ITS ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN AND AROUND BAHIR DAR TOWN, NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

Gizachew Fentahun

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2017 to March 2018 in Bahir Dar and its surrounding areas, north-western Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of bovine schistosomiasis and to identify risk factors associated with Schistosoma infection. Simple random sampling method was used to select the study animals and coprological examination was applied to identify Schistosoma eggs. Total 300 cattle were examined and 21.6% (n=65) were found positive for Schistosoma eggs. Cattle of different age groups were studied and significantly (p<0.05) differ with the age, young (12.9%), adult (24.1%) and old (27.3%). The prevalence of bovine schistosomiasis across kebeles was found different, in Sebatamit (29.8%), Kebele seven (22.8%),Adisalem (19.3%) and Kebele fourteen (18.7%). But, there was no significant (p<0.05) difference based on origin and sex. Animals categorized under poor body condition score has significantly (p<0.05) higher prevalence (32, 6%), followed by medium (20%) and good body condition (11%). The prevalence of the disease was higher in local (25.6%) than cross breed cattle (13.9%). It was also significantly (p<0.05) higher in extensive management system (26.4%) than semi-intensive management system (16.6%) and intensive management system (0%). This study indicated that bovine schistosomiasis is becoming one of the major cattle health problems in and around Bahir Dar. Therefore, control measures against schistosomiasis must be designed to target either parasite or snail or both.

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Analysis of Urban Households Food Insecurity in Eastern Zone of Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia

Naser Yenus Nuru

The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence, extent and determinants of food insecurity among urban households in the major towns of Eastern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia, namely Adigrat and Wukro. Data for the study is obtained from 397 randomly selected urban households using structured questionnaire. FGT index and binary logit model are used for data analysis. The finding from FGT index shows that 7.4% and 5.4% of households in Adigrat and Wukro are food insecure, respectively. The depth and severity of food insecurity is 2.1% and 0.1% in Adigrat, and 1.5% and 0.5% in Wukro, respectively. The logistic regression model result reveals that variables such as family size, age of the household head, education status of the household head and credit access are significant factors influencing urban households� food insecurity in the major towns of the zone at less than 10 % significance level.

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PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN CAMELS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS OF AFAR NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE, NORTH EASTERN ETHIOPIA

Muhammed Hamid

Camel trypanosomiasis or surra, is a life-threatening disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi, with negative impacts on health, Production and working efficiency of camels in different camel-rearing areas of the world including Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was carried out from November, 2016 to May, 2017 with the aim of estimating the prevalence of camel trypanosomiasis (surra) and assessing of associated risk factors in Dubti and Asayita districts of Afar region, Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected 200 camels. Wet film blood smears and Giemsa-stain were used for the detection of trypanosomes. Out of 200 examined camels, 9(4.5%) were positive for Trypanosoma evansi. Higher prevalence of the disease was recorded in Dubti (6.97%) than in Asayita (2.63%). Camels of >4years age group (7.47%) showed higher prevalence of infection compared to those with <4years (1.07%). According to logistic regression analysis, previously aborted camels were found at higher risk (p= 0.698; OR=5.11, 95% CI = 1.174- 22.317). The Chi-square analysis showed that, there was no statistically significant difference between body condition categories and herd size of camels with the occurrence of the disease (X2=3.839; p=0.147,) and (X2=0.718; p= 0.698) respectively. The number of animals with lower PCV (anemic) was 49% and those with normal PCV were 51%. The result of this study revealed that camel trypanosomiasis was prevalent in the study area. Thus, designing of the control and prevention strategies with further identifying risk factors is desirable.

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