DAAGU INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH

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WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSE AS AN IMPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH IN ARSIS AREA, AFAR, NORTHEASTERN ETHIOPIA

Hindeya Gebru

Safe water is a prerequisite for human health and any developmental activities. Water-related diseases are caused by insufficient safe water quality and quantity. The study area is located in the east-central Afar depression which affected mainly by salinity and fluoride. The main objective is to investigate the water quality of the area as an implication for human health. The exposed lithologies of the area are consist of basalt, scoriaceous basalt, and alluvial deposits. These are affected by normal faults with NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE orientation. A total of three water samples are collected from spring, borehole, and river water points and analyzed for about 31 parameters. As a result, the spring water has very low water quality followed by borehole but the river water is freshwater and portable for domestic uses. The long-term effect of the spring water can be kidney and heart diseases, laxative and constipation effects, cardiovascular disease, kidney damage and disinfection, hypertension, headache, coronary artery disease, diabetes, adrenal insufficient, and hyperkalemia. The water types of the springs, borehole, and river are Na-Cl-SO4, Na-HCO3, and Ca-Na-HCO3-SO4, respectively. The water quality index (WQI) shows the spring water is not recommended for any domestic purpose but the river water needs treatment for the turbidity and total iron concentrations only. As the finding shows, the spring water is strongly recommended to protect from any consumers.

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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCING TAXPAYERS’ COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR CATEGORY “C” TAXPAYERS IN EASTERN ZONE OF TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA

Teshome Mengstu

The study was focused on the investigation of the factors that influencing taxpayer’s compliance behavior in Eastern Zone of Tigray in Category “C” taxpayers. In order to gain an in depth understanding of the phenomenon, the study expands the basic tax payers’ compliance variable to incorporate tax service quality, tax system/structure, attitude towards tax evasion, type of occupation, income level and financial condition. In order to achieve the desired objectives of the study, primary data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from 380 sampled respondents, which is a cross sectional type. The collected data were treated and analyzed statistically using ordered logistic regressions analysis with the help of STATA version 11. Moreover, descriptive statistics was also used for both questionnaire and interview via content analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the descriptive statistics on the surveyed sample perceived the tax service quality and tax system structure were ineffective and business profit taxpayers shown unfavorable attitude towards tax evasion based up on the interview as well. The findings also indicated that, based on ordered logistic regression, all variables found to have a positive effect on tax payers’ compliance behavior. Particularly tax service quality, occupation and financial condition significantly affect the tax payers ‘compliance behavior at 95 % confidence interval.

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STUDY ON REMOVAL OF CONGO RED DYE ONTO CLEODENDRUM FRAGRANS LEAVES: OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM)

M.Ravi Kumar

The Objective of the present study is to remove Congo red (CR) dye onto Cleodendrum fragrans leaves powder as biosorbent in a batch study. The effect of process variables used were contact time, solution pH, initial CR dye concentration, biosorbent dosage, average particle size of the biosorbent and temperature. The kinetic, isotherm and Thermodynamic studies of removal of CR dye onto Cleodendrum fragrans biosorbent were investigated. In the present study Congo red dye uptake was found to be 13.31mg/g by using Cleodendrum fragrans leaves as biosorbent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to study the correlations among the process variables affecting the process and to optimize the process to give high dye removal. The maximum removal efficiency was predicted to be 93.54% at a temperature of 303.48 K, solution pH of 3.99, initial dye concentration of 19.63 mg/L, biosorbent dosage of 1.76 g.

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Wossene Negash
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Haftu K/mariam
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Gizachew Fentahun
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Analysis of Urban Households Food Insecurity in Eastern Zone of Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia

Naser Yenus Nuru

The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence, extent and determinants of food insecurity among urban households in the major towns of Eastern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia, namely Adigrat and Wukro. Data for the study is obtained from 397 randomly selected urban households using structured questionnaire. FGT index and binary logit model are used for data analysis. The finding from FGT index shows that 7.4% and 5.4% of households in Adigrat and Wukro are food insecure, respectively. The depth and severity of food insecurity is 2.1% and 0.1% in Adigrat, and 1.5% and 0.5% in Wukro, respectively. The logistic regression model result reveals that variables such as family size, age of the household head, education status of the household head and credit access are significant factors influencing urban households� food insecurity in the major towns of the zone at less than 10 % significance level.

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PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN CAMELS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS OF AFAR NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE, NORTH EASTERN ETHIOPIA

Muhammed Hamid

Camel trypanosomiasis or surra, is a life-threatening disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi, with negative impacts on health, Production and working efficiency of camels in different camel-rearing areas of the world including Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was carried out from November, 2016 to May, 2017 with the aim of estimating the prevalence of camel trypanosomiasis (surra) and assessing of associated risk factors in Dubti and Asayita districts of Afar region, Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected from randomly selected 200 camels. Wet film blood smears and Giemsa-stain were used for the detection of trypanosomes. Out of 200 examined camels, 9(4.5%) were positive for Trypanosoma evansi. Higher prevalence of the disease was recorded in Dubti (6.97%) than in Asayita (2.63%). Camels of >4years age group (7.47%) showed higher prevalence of infection compared to those with <4years (1.07%). According to logistic regression analysis, previously aborted camels were found at higher risk (p= 0.698; OR=5.11, 95% CI = 1.174- 22.317). The Chi-square analysis showed that, there was no statistically significant difference between body condition categories and herd size of camels with the occurrence of the disease (X2=3.839; p=0.147,) and (X2=0.718; p= 0.698) respectively. The number of animals with lower PCV (anemic) was 49% and those with normal PCV were 51%. The result of this study revealed that camel trypanosomiasis was prevalent in the study area. Thus, designing of the control and prevention strategies with further identifying risk factors is desirable.

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