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Molla Zewdie
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The Effect of Rural Out-Migration on Farm Income of Migrant Sending Rural Households: The Case of Alaje Woreda, Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia.

Yoseph Gashaye Zinabu

Research on the relationship between rural-out migration and agricultural production is highly hampered by empirical evidence from the perspective of migrant-sending rural households. This paper assesses the effect of rural-out migration on farm income of migrant- sending rural households with evidence from Alaje woreda, Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. This paper utilized both desk and field research that depends on both secondary and primary data. A mixed research approach was applied. Using a simple random sampling technique 145 sample households were used for the household survey. The quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Cobb-Douglas production function approach and ordinary least squares regression model was used to estimate the impact of rural-out migration on farm income. The findings showed that rural out-migration has significantly reduced the available labor in migrant- sending households and remittances play a positive and significant role in boosting investment in capital stock. Migrant sending households have obtained higher income from the farm as a result of positive marginal productivity of labor and remittance income received.

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Effect of Seed and Nitrogen Rates on Some Phenological and Growth Parameters of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Semi-arid condition in Northeast Ethiopia

Mohammed Hussen
Wheat is well adapted to the mid and high land agro-ecologies of northeastern Ethiopia. The use of appropriate seed and nitrogen rates are among the most important agronomic practices that determine the phenological and growth parameters of crops. Field experiment was conducted during 2018/2019 crop season to identify the optimum seed and nitrogen rates that maximize phenological and growth parameters of bread wheat .The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of three seed rates (100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and four nitrogen rates (0, 53, 88 and 122kg N ha-1).The result showed that days to heading, grain filling, 90% physiological maturity and harvest maturity were significantly affected by seed and nitrogen rates only but growth like plant height, spike length, numbers of tillers per m-2were significantly (p<0.05) affected by interaction effects of seed and nitrogen. Among the main effects and their interaction, 150 kg ha-1 seed rate and 122kg ha-1 nitrogen rate into the highest phenological and growth parameters. It is concluded that application of 122 kg N ha-1 with 150 kg ha-1 seed rate may be recommended to obtain optimum phenological and growth parameters. Read More


Ravi Kumar M
The objective of the present study is to remove crystal violet (CV) dye from their industrial waste water using Spathodea campanulata leaves powder as low cost biosorbent in a batch study. The effects of parameters were contact time, solution pH, initial CV dye concentration, biosorbent dosage, average particle size of the biosorbent and temperature. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis is used to investigate the surface morphology of the biosorbent. The morphological characterization of the Spathodea Campanulata leaves biosorbent before and after biosorption of crystal violet was studied. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) provides structural and compositional information on the functional groups present in the biosorbent. The functional groups present in the Spathodea Campanulata leaves biosorbent before and after biosorption of crystal violet was investigated within the range of 400 – 4000cm-1 wave number. The analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectrum shows the presence of large number of functional groups present on the surface of the Spathodea Campanulata leaves biosorbent. XRD patterns for crystal violet treated powder exhibit more amorphous nature and increase in surface area and porosity. The maximum removal efficiency was predicted to be 89% for crystal violet, which was obtained at a temperature of 303.28 K, solution pH of 6.06, initial dye concentration of 20.09 mg/L and biosorbent dosage of 1.50g, on to spathodea campanulata leaves. Read More

Focus Group Discussion as a data collection tool in Economics

Fentahun Admassu Yayeh
This paper reviews the literature on the focus group discussion as a data collection tool and provides information for a better understanding of focus group discussion by addressing the questions of what is the meaning of focus group discussion? What are logistics needed? Its advantages and limitations, how leader behaviors necessary to keep focus group discussion going? And its application in economic data collection. The secondary data were drawn from a pool of research papers and sourced from journal articles, related books, published training manual and websites that specify key elements of the focus group discussion and find that focus group discussion has different definitions, types and it is highly valued as a qualitative research data collection tool, especially for its ability to generate in-depth understandings to a topic in an effective and timely manner. It can be a cost-effective, quick approach to data collection and relatively easier to conduct. But it has some limitations and logistical difficulties involved such as groupthink and accuracy, harder to get everyone in the same place at the same time. Above these challenges, focus group discussion as a data collection tool is seen as effective and even less resource-intensive compared to other methods. Yet it requires proper planning and organization. Read More

Mebrahtu Kiros Hagos
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Mastan Rao Kotipalli
Activated charcoal prepared from Adansonia Digitata (baobab) wood has been used for the removal of congo red dye (CR) from simulated aqueous solutions employing adsorption method. The effect of adsorption was studied by using different parameters such as pH(2-8), contact time(30-120min), initial dye concentration(50-150mg/L) and adsorbent dosage(0.5-2.0g). The extent of adsorption was determined by employing UV-Vis spectrometer. The experimental data was verified by Freundlich model and found to be in agreement. Under the experimental conditions the parameters at the maximum adsorption ability have been determined for the dye and reported. Read More