Microdesmis keayana is commonly known as microdesmis and is used in South-Western Nigeria as an aphrodisiac. Despite its extensive traditional usage, the bioactive constituents of this plant’s roots are yet to be explored thoroughly. The present study was carried out to actuate the chemical components of Microdesmis keayana root by quantitative phytochemical screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty grams of the powdered roots was sequentially extracted by ethanol and later tested for preliminary quantitative phytochemical screening and further subject to GC-MS analysis. The results showed the presence of alkaloids (17.85±0.48), flavonoids (6.17±0.27), tannins (6.17±0.27), steroids (5.53±0.1), saponins (9.25±0.02), phenols (3.01±0.11) and cardiac glycoside (3.41±0.13) in the extract. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 14 major compounds of different chemical class relevant to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. The findings indicated that the studied plant possesses therapeutic compounds that could improve a person’s health, and therefore justifies its traditional usage in the management of male sexual dysfunction and other reproductive disorders.Read More
The purpose of this paper is to address the major impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sixth general election and democratic development of Ethiopia. The data were drawn from pertinent publications as well as official websites of organizations and synthesized in thematic content analysis. As a major finding, COVID-19 less impacted the overall election process and credibility. Yet, restrictions on major democratic rights, such as freedom of movement and assembly; court system closure; and women's and children's domestic violence were severe impacts of COVID-19 during the lockdown period. Moreover, in human capital development, about 26 million children, 77% of whom are primary school students are affected by school closures; and 1.6–2.4million jobs were lost. Thus, the paper concluded that, though radical opponent political parties understated the credibility of the election by stating election postponement as the main argument, Ethiopia held a relatively democratic election after passing a decision of election postponement owing to the pandemic. So far, human capital and the infant economy were severely impacted by the pandemic, since the vast attention of the government was relied upon on COVID-19 response measures. Thus, to cope with an unforeseen crisis like COVID-19, the government should work on technological advancement to easily handle periodic elections, education, health and economic systems.Read More
Urban unemployment scenario has been attracting attention of policy makers and researchers. Unemployment is considered as critical social problem which signifies the attention so far given to its remedial measures is inadequate. This paper aims to compensate research gap and practical possible intervention that more likely address the problem if it is properly investigated and implemented accordingly. Researcher set main objectives that more probably answer questions associate with urban unemployment patterns. In view of those major factors of unemployment, hardship that unemployed face, coping strategies unemployed use and scenario of self employment in urban centers were adequately emphasized. Data of this research was taken from central statistics agency of Ethiopia and the data was tested that it has been proven suitable for statistical analysis. This study is the summary of detailed analysis that done before by researcher. Researcher aimed to produce concise concept note and empirical finding summary.Read More
In the present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the recoverable gold from waste aqua-regia solution containing gold traces released by gold processing laboratories in Tanzania. One kilogram sample of aqua-regia solution containing 69 ppm of gold was treated with zinc dust, sodium cyanide and sodium hydroxide in stoichiometric quantities. The mass of zinc was optimized keeping the other parameters constant. The resultant solution containing elemental gold in the form of a precipitate was separated by filtration. The amount of unrecovered gold traces present in the filtrate has been assayed by AAS. Basing on the calculations, the recoverable gold was found to be 74.78%, at an optimum mass of zinc. The results obtained were analyzed and reported.