DAAGU INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH

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GROWTH, YIELD AND NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY OF GREEN BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) AS INFLUENCED BY RATE OF BIOCHAR AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER AT JIMMA, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA

Osman Ahmed

Based on the national soil database, most of the southwest Ethiopian soils are deficient in macronutrients (Nitrogen) and affected by ongoing acidification problems. This has affected growth, yield and NUE of legumes in general and that of green beans in particular. However, studies on the combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizer or amendments to improve the growth yield and NUE of green bean is scant. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to determine the rate of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield and NUE of green bean on the acidic soil of Jimma in 2017/2018. The treatments consisted of four biochar rates (0, 2, 4 and 6 t ha-1) and four nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg ha-1) and laid out using 4x4 factorial arrangements in a randomized complete block design with three replications. ANOVA show that combined application of biochar and Nitrogen fertilizer highly significantly (P<0.001) total pod yield, nitrogen use efficiency and soil pH, total nitrogen and organic carbon. The highest pod yield (48.72g plant-1), NUE (12.69 gg-1) was obtained from the combined application of 6 t biochar and 23 kg N fertilizer ha-1 , The highest total number of nodules (121.33) at 2 t ha-1 BC +23 kg ha-1 N fertilizer and the highest soil pH (6.01) resulted when the pots received of 6 t biochar ha-1alone. Therefore, The improved soil chemical properties, pod yield, and nitrogen use efficiency through combined use of biochar and N fertilizer suggests the importance of integrated use of biochar with N fertilizer to ensure that green bean crops are adequately supplied with N for NUE and total pod yield in tropical acid soils for sustainable green bean production in the long term.

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STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF OVINE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT NEMATODES IN AND AROUND HAWASSA TOWN, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

Sileshi Shilote

A cross sectional study from November 2017 to April 2018 was conducted to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with major sheep gastro-intestinal tract nematodes in and around Hawassa town of Southern Nation Nationalities and People region, Ethiopia. A total of 384 randomly selected sheep fecal samples were examined using flotation technique. Out of the total sampled sheep, 265(69%) had a gastrointestinal nematode infection. Coprological investigation revealed that sheep in the district were infested by a variety of helminth nematodes. Among nematode eggs Strongyles were most frequently ( 37.9%) recorded followed by Strongyloides (35.9%) and Trichuris species (11.4%).The study revealed statistically non-significant differences (p>0.05) between male and female sheep, even though, higher prevalence was recorded in females. There was also statistically no significant difference (p>0.05) between age groups of sheep and study sites. However, a significant difference (p<0.05) between body condition of the animals was recorded , with higher prevalence in animals with poor body condition being 1.72 times more exposed to gastrointestinal nematode infection than animals in good body condition with CI (1.08369-2.71624). Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the major problems that could hamper health and productivity of sheep in the study area. Therefore, emphasis on the control and prevention of GIT nematodes should be given, with further studies on genus and species identification of nematode eggs followed by strong recommendations to tackle the problem in the study area.

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Critical Analysis on Frequency of Amharic Sounds: the perspective of corpus Linguistics

Samuel Leykun

Corpus linguistics basically give more emphasis to collocation, frequency and corpus statistics. This study intends to investigate the frequency of Sounds in Amharic, to explore the unique linguistic features found in Amharic, and to assess the nature and characteristics of Amharic fields. Critical research paradigm was used in this study. To achieve the objectives of the study the researcher used elicitation and documents analysis as data gathering method. To briefly summarize the findings of the study, in terms of sound articulations the characteristics of all consonants in Amharic is the same except ሀ /ha/. In Amharic lexicons the frequency of the sixth sound or sadɪs fidels is very high. More explicitly, in most basic or core vocabularies of Amharic the sixth or sadɪs fidels are occur frequently 68.75 % in average. This indicate that, the frequency of the sixth sound or sadɪs fidel in Amharic language is very high especially in basic or core vocabularies. The distribution of the sixth sound or sadɪs fidel is might be at the first syllable or the last syllable. Therefore its distribution is not common. In other words, the sadɪs sound may come at the beginning of word or middle of word or end of a lexicons. Orthographically speaking, single fidel or consonant can convey full text or message. For example: ና /na/ ‘come’, ያ /ja/ ‘that’this can be considerd as the unique feature of the target language. In Amharic, it is very tough to get the sixth fidel followed by the long vowel. Therefore, in lexicon creativity and productivity linguists should consider the sixth fidel to create the non-existing lexicon in Amharic.

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Software piracy understanding, challenges, detection and prevention in higher education students of Ethiopia

Abdulahi Mahammed Adem

Software piracy is the unauthorized copying and distribution of software (Lee, 1994). According to Ping and Chang (2004), piracy is the unauthorized usage, transfer, copying and reproduction of copyrighted software. Piracy entails the violation of license agreements and transpires when you install, download, file share, issue or copy digitized data such as entertainment media and software programs with no consent from the owner or inventor. As software is getting more valuable, unauthorized users or malicious programmers illegally copies and distributes copyrighted software over online service provider (OSP) and P2P networks. Digital piracy as a continuing problem significantly impacts various stakeholders, including consumers, enterprises, and countries. The aim of this study is to understand student motives and drivers of piracy and provide insights into the ways individuals rationalize their behavior in regards to digital piracy. The increase of piracy has, of late, greatly affected the market for software applications (Andres, 2006). According to the International Planning Research Corporation (IPRC), the estimated world piracy rate for business software applications alone was 39% in 2002, leading to losses of $13.07 billion (IPRC, 2003). According to the first annual Business Software Alliance (BSA) & International Data Corporation (IDC) study in 2004, for every two dollars’ worth of software purchased legitimately, one dollar's worth was obtained illegally.

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BIOSORPTION OF CONGO RED FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING CLEODENDRUM FRAGRANS LEAVES: KINETIC AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES

Ravi Kumar Madugula

The aim of the present study is to remove Congo red (CR) dye from their aqueous solution using Cleodendrum fragrans leaves powder as biosorbent in a batch study. The variables covered in a batch study were contact time, solution pH, initial CR dye concentration, biosorbent dosage, average particle size of the biosorbent and temperature. The kinetic and isotherm studies of biosorption of CR dyes onto Cleodendrum fragrans biosorbent was investigated using various kinetic pseudo first order, pseudo-second order and isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin). The experimental data of biosorption of the dye onto the Cleodendrum fragrans biosorbent fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The isotherm reveals that the biosorption of the dye onto Cleodendrum fragrans biosorbent was favourable. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were also estimated for the biosorption of CR dye. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the biosorption of Congo red dye onto Cleodendrum fragrans biosorbent was spontaneous, feasible and endothermic.

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CLASS ROOM MANAGEMENT DURING A GROUP DISCUSSION IN ENGLISH; THE CASE OF MADA WALABU UNIVERSITY FIRST YEAR ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE STUDENTS

Samuel Leykun

The main purpose of this study was to assess class room management during group discussion in English in the case of Madawalabu university first year English language and literature students and to suggest ways of improving class room management while group discussion in English . The study has both general and specific objectives so as to achieve its goal and purpose. For the effectiveness of the study both primary and secondary data collection tools wave applied. Questionnaire and class room observation were used to collect data from the subject of the study. In order to collect data, the researcher used random sampling method. From the subject of the study 10 students and 4 teachers generally 14 respondents were selected to fill the questionnaire. In addition to this, classroom observation was conducted by the researcher to strength then the results of the questionnaire, qualitative and quantitative data analysis were used to analysis the data. Following data analysis, interpretation, conclusion and recommendations were given based on the research findings. From this findings and suggestions some ways of improving class room management during group discussion in English has been drawn.

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