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The prevalence and determent of HIV/AIDS Risky practices among students Afar Regional State, Northeast, Ethiopia 2019

Frewein Yilma
Human immunodeficiency virus deficiency virus remains as a serious public health importance. Practices that expose them to risk of contracting sexual transmitted diseases included HIV/AIDS is that the major effective driver. The aim of the study was to assess risky practices and associated factors for HIV/AIDS infection among students Afar Regional State Northeast, Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from Decembers 10, 2019 to January 12, 2020, among regular students who resided in university and college students. A pretested structured questionnaire was used per collect of the data. Using the systematic random sampling technique, a total of 800 respondents participated in the study. The data were entered into EPI info version 3.5.3 and moved to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics bi-variate and multi variable analyses were done. A p-value < 0.05 was considered the statistical significance of the association between factors (independent variables) and risky sexual activity. The Odds’ ratio was also used to determine the presence and the degree of association between dependent and independent variables. Among 800 respondents, the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors was found to be 33.1%... The most predictor variables for risky sexual behavior among the students were marital status (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.96–5.17), year of study (AOR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.13–5.96), ever visted to nightclubs (AOR = 7.11, 95% CI = 4.88–10.37) and ever chewing Khat (AOR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.56–4.96) were statistically associated with risky sexual practice. The prevalence of risky HIV/AIDS practice was high, and 33.1% of study participants were engaged in risky practice. Efforts to increase Awareness creation activity on the importance of safer sex behaviors and consequences of substance use like chewing khat through health education and counseling are highly recommended. Read More

Samuel Leykun
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A seroprevalence study of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Assessment of Risk Factors on Indigenous Afar Cattle in Selected Districts of Afar Region, Afar, Ethiopia

Wossene Negash
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia CBPP) is a transboundary and economically devastating cattle disease rampant in lowland areas where majority of the country’s cattle population are reared by the pastoral production system. Influenced by pastoral production system, CBPP has continued to be a productivity impedance to pastoral area settings. Studies suggested that CBPP is being prevalent in lowlands than mid and highland agro-ecologies. No matter how CBPP is a prime constraint to cattle producers in Afar region, research outputs on CBPP are unavailable compared to highland areas in the country. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to determine serological prevalence of CBPP and evaluate associated risk factors in selected districts of the region. A cross-sectional study design was conducted on local Afar cattle aged six months and above from February 2018 to January 2019 in selected Dubti, Asaita and Chifra districts, Afar region. From each randomly selected animal, 8ml blood was drawn from the jugular vein into plain vacutainer tubes. Determined by Thrusfield formula, a total of 420 serum samples were collected. Samples were labeled, packed and transported to Samara University for separation of serum and blood and sera stored at -20C. Using c-ELISA, antibodies against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (MmmSc) were detected at National Veterinary Institute (NVI), Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using Stata 14.0 software. Using descriptive statistics, prevalence and frequencies were computed. Of 420 samples tested by c-ELISA, 158 samples were found to be positive for CBPP providing an overall prevalence of 37.6% with 95% CI (32.97-42.27). Of the three risk factors (age, sex and district) assessed by Chi-square (χ2), only two (age and district) were found to be associated with CBPP (P<0.05). Both age and district were significantly associated with the disease by bivariate logistic regression. However, only district was found to be significantly associated with CBPP by multivariate logistic regression analysis using 95 % CI and P-value less than 5%. The study addressed the current status of CBPP in the study areas to be higher, urging prompt and coordinated intervention to be set in place. Read More

David Mihayo L
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