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Bovine Tuberculosis in Ethiopia – A Review On Risk Factors And Its Public Health Importance

Faizullah Peer
Bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infectious zoonotic disease of domestic animals and humans is characterized by formation of granulomas in tissues especially lungs, lymph nodes, liver, intestines and kidneys. Mycobacterium bovis an acid-fast bacterium is the main etiological agent and transmitted both by erogenous and enterogenous routes. In Ethiopia, bovine tuberculosis is endemic and mostly transmitted to humans by ingestion of unpasteurized contaminated milk and close contact with infected animals. Disease causes development of miliary tubercular lesions, chronic cough, obstruction of air passages, alimentary tract and blood vessels and enlargement of lymph nodes. A spectrum of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses (CMI) predominate infection, projecting the role of macrophages and T-cell populations. In advanced stage, there is increased humoral response. Tuberculin tests; single intra-dermal and comparative intra-dermal tests and other highly sensitive delayed type hyper-sensitivity tests are used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in live animals, TB eradication and also for international trade. Vaccination of calves with attenuated bovine-strain of tuberculosis bacterium, known as Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) and testing and culling of infected animals are important measures in bovine tuberculosis (BTB) control and prevention in endemic areas like Ethiopia. Additionally, pasteurization of milk is important before human consumption to reduce public health risks. Read More

Role of grafting on tomato production: Review

Wakgari Hailu Merga

Tomato an important vegetable crop is a rich source of red pigment carotenoid, lycopene, vitamins and minerals. Its world production is reached to 182,256,458 tons in 2018 with productivity of 38.269 t ha-1. The contribution of Ethiopia for World market in case of tomato is insignificant due to its low production of about 43,816 tons in 2018 with area coverage and productivity of 7089 ha and 6.18 t ha-1 respectively. The low production and productivity of tomato may be associated with abiotic and biotic factors. Grafting positively affects the life of plants in different ways. As it is indicated by various findings, grafted tomato plant was well performed both in growth and eventually in yield related parameters without significant quality reduction in most cases. To boost the production of tomato crop in the areas where there are different biotic and abiotic factors, using grafting technology with disease resistant and abiotic factors tolerant rootstock is the noble solution. Especially in Ethiopia, grafting which is almost new technology for the country can improve tomato production and productivity. To adopt such important technology in Ethiopia, it is necessary to conduct researches regarding tomato grafting. Furthermore, the rootstocks with desired characteristics should be identified within the species through researches.

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In-vitro embryo production and transfer technology in cattle: An updated review article

Ashenafi Syoum Menkir

The use of in vitro technique with domestic animal gametes and the methods of embryo manipulation for assisted reproduction is currently the most advanced method in cattle breeding with regard to scientific research and practice. In vitro embryo production (IVP) is the process of production of live embryos in the laboratory rather than in vivo by collecting oocytes from slaughterhouse ovaries as well as from live donor cows. IVP entails the completion of three biological steps that are now relatively well established in cattle: oocyte in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Oocyte maturation is a complex process involving nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in appropriate media. To enhance successful fertilization of matured Oocytes, sperm cells must be motile, have the ability to undergo capacitation and express the acrosome reaction. In vitro embryo culture systems depend on multiple parameters such as the composition of culture media and gases. The most common media used in culture systems are synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF), potassium simplex optimization medium (KSOM), and complement receptor 1 (CR1aa). Embryos of appropriate quality can be transferred directly to recipient cows or frozen for future use. Embryo transfer (ET) is a multi-step process that involves the production and collection of pre implantation embryos from genetically superior females and the subsequent transfer of those embryos into reproductively healthy females for the purpose of establishing pregnancies and producing live offspring. ET technology is an important tool to improve livestock at faster rate as well as gives an opportunity to utilize the genetic contribution of both male and female at the same time. Selection of recipient and proper recipient herd management are vitally important to the success of transferred cow embryos. There are two methods of transferring embryos; surgical and non-surgical. There are problems associated with in vitro embryo production. Low success rates limit the contribution that the IVP technique can make, especially to genetic improvement.

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Mastan Rao Kotipalli

In continuation of our research work in the area of developing adsorbents from agricultural wastes, a mixture of adsorbents is chosen in the present study. A novel adsorbent obtained by blending adansonia digitata (baobab) wood and musa acuminata stem (1:1 w/w) has been used for the removal of congo red dye using simulated aqueous solutions employing adsorption method. The degree of adsorption was studied by using different parameters such as pH (2-8), contact time (50-150 min), initial dye concentration (50-150 mg/l) and adsorbent dosage (0.5-2 g). The extent of adsorption was determined by employing UV-Vis spectrometer. The experimental data was verified by Freundlich model and found to be in agreement. Under the experimental conditions the parameters at the maximum adsorption ability have been determined for the dye and reported.

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Seid Ahmed

This paper evaluated the factors determining the households WTP for improved solid waste management services in Logia town. In this study 201 respondents are included to analyses the household’s willingness to pay for improved solid waste management services in the logia town using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) techniques. The Sampling technique respondents were selected by lottery method (simple random methods) because of the population homogeneity. Both primary and secondary sources of information were collected and the study was applied a binary logit model. Out of 201 respondents, about 65.17% are willing to pay for improved SWM services with an average maximum willingness to pay is 13 Birr per month this shows households have an interest to contribute to environmental protection. The result shows that respondents age, distance between resident area and waste disposal facility, unpaid options (all with negative), sanitary supervisor visit, dwelling type and attitude (awareness) (all with positive) have significant effects on the willingness to pay for improved solid waste management services. In conclusion, the majority of the households are willing to pay for improved solid waste management services, which implies that any policy effective for improved solid waste management services in the study area is needed.

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